gauge

Definitions:

A measure; a standard of measure; on a railway, the distance between the rails, usually 4 feet 8 1/ 2 inches; a workman's tool; a mixture of certain stuff and plaster, used in finishing the best ceilings, and for mouldings.
- Etymological and pronouncing dictionary of the English language. By Stormonth, James, Phelp, P. H. Published 1874. (noun) (n.) (noun)
To measure or ascertain the contents of a cask or vessel; to measure or ascertain, as the quantity, diameter, & c.
- Etymological and pronouncing dictionary of the English language. By Stormonth, James, Phelp, P. H. Published 1874. (verb) (v.) (verb)
A standard of measure; an instrument to determine the dimensions or capacity of anything; a standard of any kind; a measure; means of estimating; " Timothy proposed to his mistress that she should entertain no servant that was above four foot seven inches high, and for that purpose had prepared a gauge, by which they were to be measured."- Arbuthnot: specifically, the distance between the rails of a railway; also, the distance between the opposite wheels of a carriage: naut ( a) the depth to which a vessel sinks in the water; ( b) the position of a ship with reference to another vessel and to the wind; when to the windward, she is said to have the weather- gauge, when to the leeward, the lee- gauge: in build, the length of a slate or tile below the lap: in plastering, ( a) the quantity of plaster of Paris used with common plaster to accelerate its setting; ( b) the composition of plaster of Paris and other materials, used in finishing plastered ceilings, for mouldings, etc.: in type- founding, a piece of hard wood variously notched, used to adjust the dimensions, slopes, etc., of the various sorts of letters: in joinery, a simple instrument made to strike a line parallel to the straight side of a board, etc.: in the air- pump, an instrument of various forms, which points out the degree of exhaustion in the receiver; the siphon- gauge is most generally used for this purpose.
- The american dictionary of the english language. By Daniel Lyons. Published 1899. (noun) (n.) (noun)
A measure.
- The Winston Simplified Dictionary. By William Dodge Lewis, Edgar Arthur Singer. Published 1919. (noun) (n.) (noun)
To measure. Also, gage.
- The Winston Simplified Dictionary. By William Dodge Lewis, Edgar Arthur Singer. Published 1919. (verb) (v. t.) (verb transitive)
A standard of measure; measuring- rod.
- The Clarendon dictionary. By William Hand Browne, Samuel Stehman Haldeman. Published 1894. (noun) (n.) (noun)
To measure the contents of, as a vessel.
- The Clarendon dictionary. By William Hand Browne, Samuel Stehman Haldeman. Published 1894. (verb) (v. t.) (verb transitive)
A measure; a standard of measure; the number of feet which a ship sinks in the water; the position of one vessel with respect to another, the weather- gauge being to weatherward, and the lee- gauge to leeward; a piece of hard wood variously notched, used to adjust the dimensions, slopes, & c., of the various sorts of letters; an instrument made to strike a line parallel to the straight side of a board; the distance between the rails, the broad gauge being 7 ft. and the narrow gauge 4 ft. 8 1/ 2 in. Sliding gauge, a tool used by mathematical instrument makers for measuring and setting off distances. Rain- gauge, an instrument for measuring the quantity of rain which falls at any given place. Sea- gauge, an instrument for finding the depth of the sea. Syphon- gauge, a gauge made in the form of a syphon, such as the steam- gauge, condenser- gauge, & c. Tide- gauge, an instrument for determining the height of the tides. Wind- gauge, an instrument for measuring the force of the wind on any given surface. Gauges, brass rings with handles, to find the diameter of all kinds of shot with expedition.
- Nuttall's Standard dictionary of the English language. By Nuttall, P.Austin. Published 1914. (noun) (n.) (noun)
To measure or to ascertain the contents of; to ascertain the capacity of, as a pipe, puncheon, hogshead, barrel, tierce, keg, etc.: to measure in respect to proportion, capability, or power, or in respect to character or behavior; to take cognizance of the capacity, capability, or power of; to appraise; to estimate; as, I gauged his character very accurately. " The vanes nicely gauged on each said."- Derham.
- The american dictionary of the english language. By Daniel Lyons. Published 1899. (verb) (v. t.) (verb transitive)
To ascertain the capacity or the contents of; to measure in respect to capability; to estimate.
- Nuttall's Standard dictionary of the English language. By Nuttall, P.Austin. Published 1914. (verb) (v.) (verb)

Usage examples:

Yes, said Frederick, you are right, but only if you use the present tense instead of the past and if you fully gauge the extent to which the trouble with my wife has been complicated for me.
- Atlantis by Gerhart Hauptmann
Then, at the other end of the state, the professor of Moral Science at a small theological seminary caught his wife in flagrante delicto with one of the fourth- year students and opened fire upon them, at a range of ten feet, with a 12- gauge pump- gun.
- Murder in the Gunroom by Henry Beam Piper
Listen and gauge the evil in the man, for it is deep as his avarice and relentless as his purpose to enjoy the riches which he considers his due.
- Cynthia Wakeham's Money by Anna Katharine Green